Windows Network Protocols:
After having gone back
trying to configure Win98SE Machines with LAN access, we decided it was
time to keep a List of Windows Network Protocols handy as a User Reference
for BuildOrBuy Readers. In an attempt to practice what we preach (K.I.S.S.),
we're providing this Information as a Short List. To Keep It Sweet &
Simple, we're only covering the Basics as it relates to configuring
Windows PC's. Just the facts! A Protocol is a Language enabling Computers
to speak to one another, so if you forget about Binding Protocols to
EtherNet LAN Adapters, we hope this will help remind all of us. And since
a DHCP Router is so easy to configure and use,
why bother with ICS (Internet Connection Sharing)? GB - Enjoy!
Resolution Protocol (ARP) - A Protocol in
the TCP/IP suite providing IP Address-to-MAC Address Resolution for IP
Service - A Service used by the Server and
other Services to notify selected Users and Computers of
Administrative Alerts occurring on a Computer. The Alerter Service
requires the Messenger Service.
- The Bootstrap
Protocol (BootP) - An established TCP/IP
Standard for Host Configuration preceding DHCP. The Bootstrap Protocol
(BootP) is a UDP/IP-based Protocol allowing a Booting Host (Client
Machine) to configure itself Dynamically without User intervention or
supervision. BootP allows the Client Machine to discover its own IP
Address, the IP Address of a Server Host, and the name of a file to be
loaded into memory and executed. In other words, allows Workstations
to Boot from the Server.
Requires a LAN card with a programmed
Plug-In EPROM chip. Newer Systems with a built-on LAN card can also
execute BootP when communicating with a Server Host.
The Bootstrap Operation (BootP) can
be thought of as consisting of TWO PHASES. RFC
951 and RFC
1542 Define and Refine this Protocol. DHCP is a later Boot
Configuration Protocol using the BootP Protocol. Microsoft DHCP
Service provides limited support for BOOTP Service.
BOOTP clients: Supporting BOOTP
Clients; Dynamic BootP.
predefined user classes
DHCP, DNS Servers - Windows NT Server 4.0:
- Windows NT Does Not Provide Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) Service
- NOTE: Because this router-based BOOTP relay-agent capability was
not clearly defined until RFC 1542, use a Router
that conforms to RFC
Boot Agent - Using the Intel Boot Agent in a BOOTP Environment:
"To use BOOTP to both obtain
an IP Address and download an image, both a BOOTP Server and a
TFTP Server must be present on the Network. In Windows 2000 Server
or Windows NT 4.0 Server, you must configure DHCP to respond to
BOOTP requests from a Client with the Client IP Address, the name
of the Boot File containing the Boot Image (Bootfile name) and the
name of the TFTP Server holding the Boot Image (TFTP Boot Server
PC BootStrap (For Reference)
- Bridge (Network
Bridge): A device connecting two LAN
segments together. Segments may be of similar or dissimilar types, such
as Ethernet and Token Ring. A bridge is inserted into a network to
segment said LAN and keep traffic contained within segments to improve
performance and provide better security.
- Browse Master: "The
Browse Master, maintains the [Network] browse list."
Protocol - Browsing is a mechanism for
discovering servers that are running particular services (not just
CIFS file services). Servers are organized into named groups called
domains, which form browsing scopes. See: Browse
Master / Master Browser.
- CIFS (Common Internet File
System) - A native File Sharing Protocol in Win2000 Server.
Microsoft's counterpart to Sun's WebNFS.
www.Microsoft.com - CIFS A Common Internet File System:
- Implementing CIFS: Buy The
Book! By Christopher R. Hertel
& Packet - A Block or Unit of Data or
Packet of Data, transmitted in a TCP/IP Network. Each DataGram
contains Source and Destination Addresses and Data.
- DHCP (Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol) - A standard
Protocol defined by RFC
1541 (Superseded by RFC
2131) allows a Server to Dynamically distribute IP Addressing and
Configuration Information to Clients. DHCP is based on the Bootstrap
Protocol (BootP). Normally the DHCP Server provides the Client with at
least this basic information:
- IP Address
- Subnet Mask
- Default Gateway
DHCP automatically assigns IP
addresses to Client Workstations logging onto a TCP/IP Network. It
eliminates having to manually assign permanent IP addresses. Hassle!
DHCP software typically runs on Servers and is also found in Network
Devices such as DHCP Routers, ISDN Routers and Modem Routers that can
allow multiple Users access to the Internet. Newer DHCP Servers
dynamically update the DNS Servers after making IP Assignments.
DHCP information obtained by the
Client from a DHCP Server will have a lease time associated with it.
The lease time defines how long the Client can use the DHCP Assigned
information. When the lease reaches certain milestones, the Client
will attempt to renew its DHCP Information.
- DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Basics:
(Domain Name Server) - A Static,
hierarchical Name Resolution Service for TCP/IP Hosts. For Windows
networks using TCP/IP, the counterpart to DNS is WINS. In a
Windows-only network, only WINS needs to be used. In a mixed
Windows/UNIX environment, the Microsoft DNS Server integrates the two.
- Domains - A
Group of Computers in a Network sharing a Common Directory Database. A
Domain is organized in levels and is Administered as a Unit with
Common Rules and Procedures. Each Domain has a Unique Name.
On the Internet, Domains are defined
by an IP Address. All Devices Sharing part of the IP address are in
the same Domain. In an Internet (Domain Name / IP Number) Address, the
Domain is generally the word or number that indicates the type of
entity that owns the Address. For example, .com, .net or .org.
Controllers - In a Windows 2000 Server
Domain, a Computer running Windows 2000 Server manages User
Access to a Network and includes Logging On, Authentication and Access
to the Directory and Shared Resources.
- EtherNet LAN
Connections - Examples of LAN Connections
include 1394, USB,
Ethernet - 10BaseT & 100BaseT using RJ45 Connections & CAT5 cabling,
Token Ring, Cable Modems & DSL (Broadband),
FDDI, IP over ATM, IrDA (Infrared), Wireless,
and ATM-emulated LANs & DialUp. Emulated
LANs are based on Virtual Adapter Drivers such as the LAN Emulation
Our PC's we now Build today have an
EtherNet LAN card Built onto the MotherBoard
adding value to newer Systems since Devices Built-On have a lower load
capacitance value than PCI Slot add-on cards.
- File Sharing Protocol /
Network Protocol a.k.a. Client / Server Protocol - Provides
the structure and language for file requests between clients and
servers. Provides commands for opening, reading, writing and closing
files across Networks. May also provide access to Directory Services.
See: CFIS / SMB.
- FoIP - Fax
over (IP) Internet Protocol.
- FTP (File
Transfer Protocol) - FTP is used to make
files and folders publicly available for transfer over the Internet.
FTP can be accomplished either through the Web
Browser or an FTP Client Program.
- ICS (Internet
Connection Sharing) - With the Internet
Connection Sharing feature of Network and Dial-up
Connections, you can connect your Home Network
or Small Office Network to the Internet. By enabling Internet
connection sharing on the computer that uses the Dial-Up Connection,
you are providing network address translation (NAT), IP Addressing,
and Name Resolution Services for all computers on your Home Network.
Get a DHCP Router able to use an Dial-Up
external Modem Device instead! Security
up and Use Internet Connection Sharing
Control Message Protocol (ICMP) - A
Maintenance Protocol in the TCP/IP suite, required in every TCP/IP
implementation. Allows two nodes on an IP Network to share IP status
and error information. ICMP is used by the ping utility to
determine reachability of a Remote System. This is also how SPAM
Pop-Ups are sent to Users without their knowledge!
- IP (Internet
Protocol) - The Messenger Protocol of TCP/IP
responsible for addressing and sending IP Packets over the Network. IP
provides a best-effort, connectionless delivery system that does not
guarantee Packets arrive @ their destination or in the sequence in
which they were sent. Internet Protocol is also called IP. See: IPv6.
(Internet Protocol Version 6)
Increases the address space from 32 to 128
bits, providing for an unlimited (for all intents and purposes) number
of networks and systems.
- IP Address -
A 32-bit address used to identify a Node on an IP Internetwork (LAN -
Local Area Network).
Each Node on the IP Internetwork (LAN) must be assigned a unique IP
Address, which is made up of a Network Identifier and a Host
Identifier. This address is typically represented in dotted-decimal
notation, with the decimal value of each octet separated by a period,
for example, 192.168.0.8. In Win2000 & WinXP Pro, we can configure
the IP Address statically or dynamically through DHCP.
- IPX (Internetwork
Packet Exchange) - A Network Protocol
native to NetWare that controls Addressing and Routing of Packets
within and between LANs. IPX does not guarantee that a message will be
complete (no lost packets).
- IPX/SPX -
Transport protocols used in Novell NetWare networks, which together
correspond to the combination of TCP and IP in the TCP/IP protocol
suite. Windows 2000 implements IPX through NWLink.
- MAC Address (Media
Access Control address) - Every
EtherNet LAN card (NIC - Network
Interface card) has a unique serial number hardware MAC address to
identify each Network Device from all others.
MAC Address Lookup:
OUI and Company_id Assignments:
"The three-octet OUI can be used to generate Universal LAN
MAC addresses and Protocol Identifiers per ANSI/IEEE Std 802 for
use in Local and Metropolitan Area Network applications."
- Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
- IANA Protocol-Number Assignments Directory
(Multicast Address Dynamic Client Allocation Protocol - This
Protocol automates distribution of Multicast Address Configurations
for Network Clients. MADCAP replaces MDHCP in the DHCP Protocols.
Built on Client-Server model. Allows hosts to request Multicast
Address Allocation Services from Multicast Address Allocation Servers.
The Client Unicasts or Multicasts a Message to one or more Servers,
which may also respond with Messages Unicast to the Client. For
Clients to support the MADCAP configuration, their Programs must use
the new MADCAP Application Programming Interface (API) calls available
Service - A Service for sending and
receiving messages sent by Administrators or by the Alerter Service.
Receiving Pop-up Advertisements With Messenger Service Titles in
Advertisements with Messenger Service Titles
Routing Protocol - A Routing Protocol
supporting Multicast Packets (one to many).
- NCP (NetWare
Core Protocol) - The file-sharing protocol
that governs communications about resource (such as disk and printer),
bindery (A Database in Novell NetWare 3.x containing organizational
and security information about Users and Groups.), and NDS operations
between server and client computers on a Novell NetWare network.
Requests from client computers are transmitted by the IPX protocol.
Servers respond according to NCP guidelines.
- NDS (Novell
Directory Services) - On Networks running
Novell NetWare 4.0, a Distributed Database maintaining information
about every Network Resource and provides access to said Resources.
- NetBEUI (NetBIOS
Enhanced User Interface) - A network
protocol native to Microsoft Networking. Usually used in small,
department-size Local Area Networks (LANs) of 1 to 200 clients. Can
also use Token Ring source Routing as its only method of Routing.
NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface is also called NetBEUI. NetBEUI is the
Microsoft implementation of the NetBIOS standard.
(Network Basic Input/Output System) - An
Application Programming Interface (API) used by Programs on a Local
Area Network (LAN). NetBIOS provides Programs with a uniform set of
commands for requesting lower-level services required to manage names,
conduct sessions, and send datagrams between Nodes on a Network.
- NetWare Core
Protocol (NCP) - The file-sharing protocol
that governing communications about Resources (such as disk and
printer), Bindery, and NDS Operations between Server & Client
Computers on a Novell NetWare Network. Requests from Client Computers
are transmitted by the IPX Protocol. Servers respond according to NCP
- Network Location
Awareness - NLA: WinXP Feature
- NTP (Network Time
Protocol) - "NTP provides the mechanisms to
synchronize time and coordinate time distribution in a large, diverse
internet operating at rates from
mundane to lightwave. It uses a returnable-time design in which a
distributed subnet of time servers operating in a self-organizing,
hierarchical-master-slave configuration synchronizes local clocks
within the subnet and to national time standards via wire or radio.
The servers can also redistribute reference time via local routing
algorithms and time daemons. This is an Internet Standard Recommended
Protocol." Contrasted with SNTP
1119 (rfc1119) - Network Time Protocol (version 2) specification
- NWLink -
An implementation of the Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), sequenced
packet exchange (SPX), and NetBIOS protocols used in Novell networks.
NWLink is a standard network protocol that supports routing and can
support NetWare client-server applications, where NetWare-aware
Sockets-based applications communicate with IPX/SPX Sockets-based
- Print Servers
- A Print Server provides Printer Services
to the Network. A Print Server can be a separate PC or Printer
Hardware Device connected to the Network and dedicated to providing
Printer Services to the Network. Advantages of a Print Server include
providing Network access to Printer Resources anywhere on the Network
without tying up other valuable Workstation Resources for Spooling
Print jobs. A Printer Server = File Server + Printer.
- Samba - Freeware
implementation of SMB Protocol.
- SMB - (Server Message Block)
File Sharing protocol in a DOS, Windows or OS/2 Network. SMB
originated with NetBIOS protocol used in early DOS networks.
- SNTP (Simple Network
Time Protocol) - Simplified version of NTP - A standard
protocol used to synchronize system clocks on Routers
and Computer Systems throughout the Internet.
- Basic Operation of the Windows Time Service: Win2000.
of Time and Frequency Software:
- Stateful Packet
Inspection - Firewall Technology used
for Packet verification.
(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) -
THE Networking Protocol used on the Internet providing communications
across Interconnected Networks made up of Computers with diverse
hardware architectures and various Operating Systems. TCP/IP includes
Standards for how Computers communicate and conventions for Connecting
Networks & Routing Traffic.
TCP/IP Components: TCP (Transmission
Control Protocol) and IP (Internet Protocol). TCP - A
connection-oriented protocol passing its data to IP, which is a
connectionless one. TCP sets up a connection at both ends and
guarantees reliable delivery of the full message sent. TCP tests for
errors and requests retransmission if necessary, because IP does not.
See: Win-TCP/IP Tweaking for Windows.
(User Datagram Protocol) - A
Protocol within the TCP/IP Protocol suite used in place of TCP when a
reliable delivery is not required. UDP is used for real-time Audio and
Video Streaming traffic where lost packets are ignored, because there
is no time to retransmit. Therefore, UDP does NOT guarantee delivery!
- Windows UDP Port Scanner:
- VoIP - Voice
over (IP) Internet Protocol a.k.a. Internet Telephony.
- VPN (Virtual Private Network) -
A secure Private Network tunnel configured within a Public Network
(Internet). Adds an extra layer of Security.
See: Google Directory - Computers Security Virtual Private Networks.
Notes, including RFCs, FYIs, STDs, and IMRs.
- Networking and Communications Building Blocks Glossary: