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  1. images/bullet2.gifTelecommunications Topics:
  2. images/bullet2.gifWin2000 & WinXP Comparisons And Features List:
  1. images/bullet2.gifGoogle Directory - Computers Internet Protocols Mail Related RFCs
  2. images/bullet2.gifwww.microsoft.com/technet - How-To: Networking How-to Resources
Windows Network Protocols:

After having gone back trying to configure Win98SE Machines with LAN access, we decided it was time to keep a List of Windows Network Protocols handy as a User Reference for BuildOrBuy Readers. In an attempt to practice what we preach (K.I.S.S.), we're providing this Information as a Short List. To Keep It Sweet & Simple, we're only covering the Basics as it relates to configuring Windows PC's. Just the facts! A Protocol is a Language enabling Computers to speak to one another, so if you forget about Binding Protocols to EtherNet LAN Adapters, we hope this will help remind all of us. And since a DHCP Router is so easy to configure and use, why bother with ICS (Internet Connection Sharing)? GB - Enjoy!

  1. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) - A Protocol in the TCP/IP suite providing IP Address-to-MAC Address Resolution for IP Packets.
  2. Alerter Service - A Service used by the Server and other Services to notify selected Users and Computers of Administrative Alerts occurring on a Computer. The Alerter Service requires the Messenger Service.
  3. The Bootstrap Protocol (BootP) - An established TCP/IP Standard for Host Configuration preceding DHCP. The Bootstrap Protocol (BootP) is a UDP/IP-based Protocol allowing a Booting Host (Client Machine) to configure itself Dynamically without User intervention or supervision. BootP allows the Client Machine to discover its own IP Address, the IP Address of a Server Host, and the name of a file to be loaded into memory and executed. In other words, allows Workstations to Boot from the Server.

    Requires a LAN card with a programmed Plug-In EPROM chip. Newer Systems with a built-on LAN card can also execute BootP when communicating with a Server Host.

    The Bootstrap Operation (BootP) can be thought of as consisting of TWO PHASES. RFC 951 and RFC 1542 Define and Refine this Protocol. DHCP is a later Boot Configuration Protocol using the BootP Protocol. Microsoft DHCP Service provides limited support for BOOTP Service.

    1. Supporting BOOTP clients: Supporting BOOTP Clients; Dynamic BootP.
    2. Boot file name
    3. Microsoft predefined user classes
    4. BOOTP, DHCP, DNS Servers - Windows NT Server 4.0:
    5. 124584 - Windows NT Does Not Provide Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) Service - NOTE: Because this router-based BOOTP relay-agent capability was not clearly defined until RFC 1542, use a Router that conforms to RFC 1542.
    6. Intel Boot Agent - Using the Intel Boot Agent in a BOOTP Environment:

      "To use BOOTP to both obtain an IP Address and download an image, both a BOOTP Server and a TFTP Server must be present on the Network. In Windows 2000 Server or Windows NT 4.0 Server, you must configure DHCP to respond to BOOTP requests from a Client with the Client IP Address, the name of the Boot File containing the Boot Image (Bootfile name) and the name of the TFTP Server holding the Boot Image (TFTP Boot Server Host Name)."

    7. BootStrap: PC BootStrap (For Reference)
  4. Bridge (Network Bridge): A device connecting two LAN segments together. Segments may be of similar or dissimilar types, such as Ethernet and Token Ring. A bridge is inserted into a network to segment said LAN and keep traffic contained within segments to improve performance and provide better security.
  5. Browse Master: "The Browse Master, maintains the [Network] browse list."
  6. Browsing Protocol - Browsing is a mechanism for discovering servers that are running particular services (not just CIFS file services). Servers are organized into named groups called domains, which form browsing scopes. See: Browse Master / Master Browser.
  7. CIFS (Common Internet File System) - A native File Sharing Protocol in Win2000 Server. Microsoft's counterpart to Sun's WebNFS.
    1. www.Microsoft.com - CIFS A Common Internet File System:
    2. Implementing CIFS: Buy The Book! By Christopher R. Hertel
  8. DataGram & Packet - A Block or Unit of Data or Packet of Data, transmitted in a TCP/IP Network. Each DataGram contains Source and Destination Addresses and Data.
  9. DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) - A standard Protocol defined by RFC 1541 (Superseded by RFC 2131) allows a Server to Dynamically distribute IP Addressing and Configuration Information to Clients. DHCP is based on the Bootstrap Protocol (BootP). Normally the DHCP Server provides the Client with at least this basic information:
    1. IP Address

    2. Subnet Mask

    3. Default Gateway

    DHCP automatically assigns IP addresses to Client Workstations logging onto a TCP/IP Network. It eliminates having to manually assign permanent IP addresses. Hassle! DHCP software typically runs on Servers and is also found in Network Devices such as DHCP Routers, ISDN Routers and Modem Routers that can allow multiple Users access to the Internet. Newer DHCP Servers dynamically update the DNS Servers after making IP Assignments.

    DHCP information obtained by the Client from a DHCP Server will have a lease time associated with it. The lease time defines how long the Client can use the DHCP Assigned information. When the lease reaches certain milestones, the Client will attempt to renew its DHCP Information.

    1. 169289 - DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Basics:
  10. DNS (Domain Name Server) - A Static, hierarchical Name Resolution Service for TCP/IP Hosts. For Windows networks using TCP/IP, the counterpart to DNS is WINS. In a Windows-only network, only WINS needs to be used. In a mixed Windows/UNIX environment, the Microsoft DNS Server integrates the two.
  11. Domains - A Group of Computers in a Network sharing a Common Directory Database. A Domain is organized in levels and is Administered as a Unit with Common Rules and Procedures. Each Domain has a Unique Name.

    On the Internet, Domains are defined by an IP Address. All Devices Sharing part of the IP address are in the same Domain. In an Internet (Domain Name / IP Number) Address, the Domain is generally the word or number that indicates the type of entity that owns the Address. For example, .com, .net or .org.

  12. Domain Controllers - In a Windows 2000 Server Domain, a Computer running Windows 2000 Server manages User Access to a Network and includes Logging On, Authentication and Access to the Directory and Shared Resources.
  13. EtherNet LAN Connections - Examples of LAN Connections include 1394, USB, Ethernet - 10BaseT & 100BaseT using RJ45 Connections & CAT5 cabling, Token Ring, Cable Modems & DSL (Broadband), FDDI, IP over ATM, IrDA (Infrared), Wireless, and ATM-emulated LANs & DialUp. Emulated LANs are based on Virtual Adapter Drivers such as the LAN Emulation Protocol.

    Our PC's we now Build today have an EtherNet LAN card Built onto the MotherBoard adding value to newer Systems since Devices Built-On have a lower load capacitance value than PCI Slot add-on cards.

  14. File Sharing Protocol / Network Protocol a.k.a. Client / Server Protocol - Provides the structure and language for file requests between clients and servers. Provides commands for opening, reading, writing and closing files across Networks. May also provide access to Directory Services. See: CFIS / SMB.
     
  15. FoIP - Fax over (IP) Internet Protocol.
  16. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - FTP is used to make files and folders publicly available for transfer over the Internet. FTP can be accomplished either through the Web Browser or an FTP Client Program.
  17. ICS (Internet Connection Sharing) - With the Internet Connection Sharing feature of Network and Dial-up Connections, you can connect your Home Network or Small Office Network to the Internet. By enabling Internet connection sharing on the computer that uses the Dial-Up Connection, you are providing network address translation (NAT), IP Addressing, and Name Resolution Services for all computers on your Home Network. Get a DHCP Router able to use an Dial-Up external Modem Device instead! Security First!
    1. Set up and Use Internet Connection Sharing
  18. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) - A Maintenance Protocol in the TCP/IP suite, required in every TCP/IP implementation. Allows two nodes on an IP Network to share IP status and error information. ICMP is used by the ping utility to determine reachability of a Remote System. This is also how SPAM Pop-Ups are sent to Users without their knowledge!
  19. IP (Internet Protocol) - The Messenger Protocol of TCP/IP responsible for addressing and sending IP Packets over the Network. IP provides a best-effort, connectionless delivery system that does not guarantee Packets arrive @ their destination or in the sequence in which they were sent. Internet Protocol is also called IP. See: IPv6.
  20. IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6) - Increases the address space from 32 to 128 bits, providing for an unlimited (for all intents and purposes) number of networks and systems.
  21. IP Address - A 32-bit address used to identify a Node on an IP Internetwork (LAN - Local Area Network). Each Node on the IP Internetwork (LAN) must be assigned a unique IP Address, which is made up of a Network Identifier and a Host Identifier. This address is typically represented in dotted-decimal notation, with the decimal value of each octet separated by a period, for example, 192.168.0.8. In Win2000 & WinXP Pro, we can configure the IP Address statically or dynamically through DHCP. 
  22. IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) - A Network Protocol native to NetWare that controls Addressing and Routing of Packets within and between LANs. IPX does not guarantee that a message will be complete (no lost packets).
  23. IPX/SPX - Transport protocols used in Novell NetWare networks, which together correspond to the combination of TCP and IP in the TCP/IP protocol suite. Windows 2000 implements IPX through NWLink.
  24. MAC Address (Media Access Control address) - Every EtherNet LAN card (NIC - Network Interface card) has a unique serial number hardware MAC address to identify each Network Device from all others.
    1. Vendor-Ethernet MAC Address Lookup:
    2. IEEE OUI and Company_id Assignments: "The three-octet OUI can be used to generate Universal LAN MAC addresses and Protocol Identifiers per ANSI/IEEE Std 802 for use in Local and Metropolitan Area Network applications."
    3. www.iana.org - Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
      1. www.iana.org - IANA Protocol-Number Assignments Directory
      2. www.iana.org/assignments/ethernet-numbers
  25. MADCAP (Multicast Address Dynamic Client Allocation Protocol - This Protocol automates distribution of Multicast Address Configurations for Network Clients. MADCAP replaces MDHCP in the DHCP Protocols. Built on Client-Server model. Allows hosts to request Multicast Address Allocation Services from Multicast Address Allocation Servers. The Client Unicasts or Multicasts a Message to one or more Servers, which may also respond with Messages Unicast to the Client. For Clients to support the MADCAP configuration, their Programs must use the new MADCAP Application Programming Interface (API) calls available for Windows. 
  26. Messenger Service - A Service for sending and receiving messages sent by Administrators or by the Alerter Service.
    1. Stop Receiving Pop-up Advertisements With Messenger Service Titles in Windows 2000
    2. Stopping Advertisements with Messenger Service Titles
  27. Multicast Routing Protocol - A Routing Protocol supporting Multicast Packets (one to many).
  28. NCP (NetWare Core Protocol) - The file-sharing protocol that governs communications about resource (such as disk and printer), bindery (A Database in Novell NetWare 3.x containing organizational and security information about Users and Groups.), and NDS operations between server and client computers on a Novell NetWare network. Requests from client computers are transmitted by the IPX protocol. Servers respond according to NCP guidelines.
  29. NDS (Novell Directory Services) - On Networks running Novell NetWare 4.0, a Distributed Database maintaining information about every Network Resource and provides access to said Resources.
  30. NetBEUI (NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface) - A network protocol native to Microsoft Networking. Usually used in small, department-size Local Area Networks (LANs) of 1 to 200 clients. Can also use Token Ring source Routing as its only method of Routing. NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface is also called NetBEUI. NetBEUI is the Microsoft implementation of the NetBIOS standard. 
  31. NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) - An Application Programming Interface (API) used by Programs on a Local Area Network (LAN). NetBIOS provides Programs with a uniform set of commands for requesting lower-level services required to manage names, conduct sessions, and send datagrams between Nodes on a Network.
  32. NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) - The file-sharing protocol that governing communications about Resources (such as disk and printer), Bindery, and NDS Operations between Server & Client Computers on a Novell NetWare Network. Requests from Client Computers are transmitted by the IPX Protocol. Servers respond according to NCP Guidelines.
  33. Network Location Awareness - NLA: WinXP Feature
  34. NTP (Network Time Protocol) -  "NTP provides the mechanisms to synchronize time and coordinate time distribution in a large, diverse internet operating at rates from
    mundane to lightwave. It uses a returnable-time design in which a distributed subnet of time servers operating in a self-organizing, hierarchical-master-slave configuration synchronizes local clocks within the subnet and to national time standards via wire or radio. The servers can also redistribute reference time via local routing algorithms and time daemons. This is an Internet Standard Recommended Protocol." Contrasted with SNTP outlined below.
    1. RFC 1119 (rfc1119) - Network Time Protocol (version 2) specification and implementation:
  35. NWLink - An implementation of the Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), sequenced packet exchange (SPX), and NetBIOS protocols used in Novell networks. NWLink is a standard network protocol that supports routing and can support NetWare client-server applications, where NetWare-aware Sockets-based applications communicate with IPX/SPX Sockets-based applications.
  36. Print Servers - A Print Server provides Printer Services to the Network. A Print Server can be a separate PC or Printer Hardware Device connected to the Network and dedicated to providing Printer Services to the Network. Advantages of a Print Server include providing Network access to Printer Resources anywhere on the Network without tying up other valuable Workstation Resources for Spooling Print jobs. A Printer Server = File Server + Printer.
  37. Samba - Freeware implementation of SMB Protocol.
  38. SMB - (Server Message Block) File Sharing protocol in a DOS, Windows or OS/2 Network. SMB originated with NetBIOS protocol used in early DOS networks.
     
  39. SNTP (Simple Network Time Protocol) - Simplified version of NTP - A standard protocol used to synchronize system clocks on Routers and Computer Systems throughout the Internet.
    1. 224799 - Basic Operation of the Windows Time Service: Win2000.
    2. Publishers of Time and Frequency Software:
  40. Stateful Packet Inspection - Firewall Technology used for Packet verification.
  41. images/bullet2.gifTCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) - THE Networking Protocol used on the Internet providing communications across Interconnected Networks made up of Computers with diverse hardware architectures and various Operating Systems. TCP/IP includes Standards for how Computers communicate and conventions for Connecting Networks & Routing Traffic.

    TCP/IP Components: TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and IP (Internet Protocol). TCP - A connection-oriented protocol passing its data to IP, which is a connectionless one. TCP sets up a connection at both ends and guarantees reliable delivery of the full message sent. TCP tests for errors and requests retransmission if necessary, because IP does not. See: Win-TCP/IP Tweaking for Windows.

  42. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) - A Protocol within the TCP/IP Protocol suite used in place of TCP when a reliable delivery is not required. UDP is used for real-time Audio and Video Streaming traffic where lost packets are ignored, because there is no time to retransmit. Therefore, UDP does NOT guarantee delivery!
    1. WUPS - Windows UDP Port Scanner:
  43. VoIP - Voice over (IP) Internet Protocol a.k.a. Internet Telephony.
  44. VPN (Virtual Private Network) - A secure Private Network tunnel configured within a Public Network (Internet). Adds an extra layer of Security. See: Google Directory - Computers Security Virtual Private Networks.

 

Reference Notes:
  1. Internet Notes, including RFCs, FYIs, STDs, and IMRs.
  2. www.intel.com - Networking and Communications Building Blocks Glossary:
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Copyright 1992, 1994, 1995-97, 2000-2008, BuildOrBuy Group Network News!
Web Development, Gill Boyd & Team - Posted 03/23/2003; Updated 04/26/2008